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Our Mission

To serve patients, health care providers, research scientists, scholars, and society by providing excellence and innovation in diagnostic services and educational resources in a respectful, professional and culturally diverse atmosphere.

Our Vision

To become a preeminent leader in academic anatomic and clinical pathology while translating basic science discovery to improved clinical care.

Christine Litwin

Christine M. Litwin, M.D.

Medical Director Clinical Immunology and Referral Testing
Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Office: MUSC Childrens Hospital Suite 324G
Phone: (843) 792-5195


M.D. 1985 Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO
Pathology Residency: 1985-1990, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
Clinical Microbiology Fellowship: 1987-1988, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
Infectious Diseases/Molecular Microbiology Post-Doctoral NIH Fellowship: 1990-1993, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA
Clinical Immunology/Immunopathology Fellowship: 1993-1994, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT


Immunology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Syphilis and other STDs
Pet Zoonoses
Respiratory tract infections
Detection of biothreat agents


  1. Taggart, E. W., H. R. Hill, R. G. Ruegner, T. B. Martins and C. M. Litwin. 2006. Evaluation of an In Vitro Assay for Gamma Interferon Production in Response to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Recombinant Antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10. Am J. Clin. Pathol. 125:467-473.
  2. Litwin, C. M. 2007. In Vitro Gamma Interferon Tests for the Detection of Tuberculosis Infection. J. Immunotoxicol. 4:219-224.
  3. Litwin, C. M., M. L. Rawlins, E. M. Swenson. 2007. Characterization of an Immunogenic Outer Membrane Autotransporter Protein (Arp) of Bartonella henselae. Infect. Immun. 75:5255-63.
  4. Martins, T. B., C. M. Litwin and H. R. Hill. 2008. Evaluation of a Multiplex Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay for the Determination of Epstein-Barr Virus Serological Status. Amer. J. Clin. Path. 129:34-41.
  5. Tebo, A. E., T. D. Jaskowski, A. R. Phansalkar, C. M. Litwin, D. W. Branch, and H. R. Hill. 2008. Diagnostic Performance of Phospholipid-specific Assays for the Evaluation of Antiphospholipid Syndrome. Amer. J. Clin. Path. 129:870-5.
  6. Welch, R. J., B. L. Anderson and C. M. Litwin. 2008. Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Strip Test to Detect Anti-K39 IgG Antibodies for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 15:1483-1484.
  7. Welch, R. J., B. L. Anderson and C. M. Litwin. 2008. Evaluation of a New Commercial Enzyme Immunoassay for the Detection of IgM Antibodies to West Nile Virus Using a Ratio Method to Eliminate Nonspecific Reactivity. J. Clin. Lab. Analysis. 22:362-366.
  8. Anderson, B. L., R. J. Welch and C. M. Litwin. 2008. An Assessment of the Ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serology to Detect Active TB Disease. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 15:1644-9.
  9. Martins, T. B., R. J. Welch, H. R. Hill and C. M. Litwin. 2009. Comparison of a Multiplexed HSV Type-specific IgG Serology Assay to ELISA, Immunoblot and Western Blot. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 16:55-60.
  10. Welch, R. J., B. L. Anderson and C. M. Litwin. 2009. An Evaluation of Commercially Available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Determination of Antibodies to Rabies. J. Med. Microbiol. 58: 806-810.
  11. She, R. C., A. Wilson and C. M. Litwin. 2009. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori IgG, IgA, and IgM Compared to Stool Antigen Testing. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 16:1253-5.
  12. Welch, R. J and C. M. Litwin. 2010. Evaluation of Two Immunoblot Assays and a Western Blot Assay for the Detection of anti-Syphilis IgG Antibodies. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 17:183-4.
  13. Welch, R. J and C. M. Litwin. 2010. A Comparison of Brucella IgG and IgM ELISA Assays with Agglutination Methodology. J. Clin. Lab. Analysis. 24:160-162.
  14. She, R. C., A. Thurber, W. Hymas, J. Stevenson, J. Langer, C. M. Litwin and C.A. Petti. 2010. Limited Utility of Culture for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae for the Diagnosis of Respiratory Tract Infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 48: 3380-3382.
  15. Merrigan, S. D., R. J. Welch and C. M. Litwin. 2011. A Comparison of Western Immunoblots to ELISA for the Determination of Anti-Bordetella pertussis Antibodies. Feb 9. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 18: 615-620.
  16. She, R. C., R. J. Welch, A. R. Wilson, D. Davis and C. M. Litwin. 2011. Correlation of Chlamydia spp. IgG and IgM Antibodies by Microimmunofluorescence With Antigen Detection Methods. J. Clin. Lab. Analysis. 25: 305–308.
  17. Karris, M. Y, C. M. Litwin, B. Dong and J. Vinetz. 2011. Bartonella henselae Infection of Prosthetic Aortic Valve Associated with Colitis. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 11:1503-5.
  18. Welch, R. J, K. M. Lawless, and C. M. Litwin. 2012. Anti-tuberculosis IgG Antibodies as a Marker for Active Disease. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 19:522-6.
  19. Litwin, C. M., B. Asebiomo, K. Wilson, V. Stevens, B. Fields, B. Fliermans, J. F. Fisher. 2013. Recreational Vehicle Water Tanks as a Possible Source for Legionella infections. Case Rep. Infect. Dis. 2013: 287347.
  20. Welch, R. J, G. J. Chang, and C. M. Litwin. 2014. Comparison of a Commercial Dengue IgM Capture ELISA Assay with Dengue Antigen Focus Reduction Microneutralization Test and the Centers for Disease Control Dengue IgM Capture-ELISA. J. Virol. Meth. 195:247-249.
  21. Litwin, C. M. and J. G. Bosley. 2014. Seasonality and Prevalence of Respiratory Pathogens Detected by Multiplex PCR at a Tertiary Care Medical Center. Arch. Virol. 195:247-249.
  22. Stover, C. S. and C. M. Litwin. 2014. The Epidemiology of Upper Respiratory Infections at a Tertiary Care Center: Prevalence, Seasonality and Clinical Symptoms. J. Respiratory Medicine. 2014:469393.
  23. Franken, A. A., J. H. Oliver, and C. M. Litwin. 2015. Comparison of a Combined Nontreponemal (VDRL) and Treponemal Immunoblot to Traditional Nontreponemal and Treponemal Assays. J. Clin. Lab. Analysis. 195:247-9.
  24. She, R. C. and C. M. Litwin. 2015. Performance of a Tuberculosis Serologic Assay in Various Patient Populations. Am. J. Clin. Path. In Press.

Chapters in Scholarly Books:

  1. Jaskowski, T.D., C. Schroder, T. D. Jaskowski , C. Schroder , T. B. Martins , C. L. Mouritsen , C. M. Litwin, and H. R. Hill. Screening for Antinuclear Antibodies by Immunoassay. pp. 98-99, In The Year Book of Rheumatology 1998, Mosby Publishing, St. Louis.
  2. Litwin, C. M. Infectious Serology. In Clinical Laboratory Pearls. 2001, Lippencott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. pp. 281-297.
  3. Litwin C. M., S. K. Anderson , G. Philipps, T. B. Martins and H. R. Hill. Comparison of Capillary Zone and Immunosubtraction to Agarose Gel and Immunofixation Electrophoresis for Detecting and Identifying Monoclonal Gammopathies. In The Year Book of Pathology and Clinical Pathology 2001, Mosby Publishing, St. Louis.
  4. Litwin C. M. Immunological Tests in Tuberculosis. In Detrick B, Hamilton RG, Schmitz J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Immunology. 8th Edition 2014, ASM Press, Washington D.C.
  5. Litwin C. M., B. E. Anderson, R. Tsolis, and A. Rasley. The Bartonellaceae, Brucellaceae, and Francisellaceae. In Detrick B, Hamilton RG, Schmitz J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Immunology. 8th Edition 2014, ASM Press, Washington D.C.
  6. Litwin C. M., S. E. Litwin and H. R. Hill. Diagnostic Methods for Group A Streptococcal Infections. In Detrick B, Hamilton RG, Schmitz J (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Immunology. 8th Edition 2014, ASM Press, Washington D.C.

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